How to Create Constant Maps, Slices, & Arrays in Golang

For the most part, I’ve found that Go developers are pretty good at using global constants for configuration rather than global variables. However, a problem arises when we want a constant version of some of the more complex types. The Go compiler does not allow us to create array, map, or slice constants. After realizing this, many developers decide to use a dangerous global variable. In this article, we will explore some alternative options to effectively make constant maps, slices, and arrays, albeit with some trade-offs.

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Spoiler – TL;DR

If you’re looking for a quick answer, it’s that Go doesn’t support const arrays. It also doesn’t support constant maps, slices, or other complex types. From the official specification:

There are boolean constantsrune constantsinteger constantsfloating-point constantscomplex constants, and string constants. Rune, integer, floating-point, and complex constants are collectively called numeric constants.

The solution, which I explain in more detail later, is to use initialization functions. While of course the variables once created are still changeable, at least you can always get a new copy with the guarantee that it has the correct values.

Example of const array in Go

func getArray() [5]int { return [5]int{10, 20, 30, 40, 50} }
Code language: Go (go)

Example of const slice in Go

func getSlice() []string { return []string{"hello", "world"} }
Code language: Go (go)

Example of const map in Go

func getMap() map[string]int { return map[string]int{ "truck": 5, "car": 7, } }
Code language: Go (go)

With the quick answer out of the way, let’s explore why this is a good solution in many cases.

A Brief Refresher on Globals and Constants

package foo // this is a global constant const safeRateLimit = 10 // this is a global variable var dangerousRateLimit = 10
Code language: Go (go)

When setting configuration globals, which should be read-only, there’s no good reason to use a global variable. By using a variable instead of a constant you:

  • Open up the potential for bugs when you or someone else accidentally mutates the value
  • Confuse future developers who assume the value is supposed to change

Most people already know this about global variables thankfully, and switching global variables to global constants is a fairly straightforward task.

What If I Want A Global Array, Map, or Slice?

global slice

Let’s assume the following situation:

We have a program that needs two sets of configurations. The configurations are:

  • A list of supported social media networks
  • A rate limit for making API calls to the networks (we assume they all have the same rate limit)

Now that we know a bit about the configurations we make the following decisions:

  • Because these configurations will not change based on the environment the program is running in, we elect to set the values in code rather than using environment variables
  • Since they are needed in many places in the app, we choose to scope them globally, instead of passing them into 20+ functions
  • Because they should not change during the execution of the program, we decide to make them constant

We then write the following code:

package main const rateLimit = 10 const supportedNetworks = []string{"facebook", "twitter", "instagram"}
Code language: Go (go)

Much to our surprise, when we try to compile this code we get the following error:

const initializer []string literal is not a constant

Unlike constants in JavaScript, Go doesn’t allow complex types like slices, maps, or arrays to be constant! Our first instinct may be to lazily switch it to a variable, and add a comment:

package main const rateLimit = 10 // this is meant to be constant! Please don't mutate it! var supportedNetworks = []string{"facebook", "twitter", "instagram"}
Code language: Go (go)

Whenever we find ourselves leaving comments like this, we should be aware we are doing something wrong.

The Better Solution for Constants in Go

It’s much better to use an initializer function (not to be confused with Go’s conventional init() function). An initializer function is a function that simply declares something and returns it. Like I explained above in the tl;dr a good solution to our problem would be as follows:

package main const rateLimit = 10 func getSupportedNetworks() []string { return []string{"facebook", "twitter", "instagram"} }
Code language: Go (go)

Now, anywhere in the program, we can use the result of getSupportedNetworks() and we know that there is no way we can get a mutated value.

Obviously one of the biggest downsides to this approach is that to get a new copy of the configuration you’re literally creating a new copy and making a function call. In the vast majority of cases this should be fine – if it’s truly just a configuration you probably won’t need to be accessing it all the time. That said, if you’re rapidly making new copies it could become a performance issue.

Good Practices

Being able to keep access to maps and slices that are effectively constant can make your code easier to read, and more importantly, much less error-prone. One of the most sought-after traits of a computer scientist for high-end coding jobs is the ability to read, write, and refactor code so that it’s more maintainable and easier to understand.

Have questions or feedback?

Follow and hit me up on Twitter @q_vault if you have any questions or comments. If I’ve made a mistake in the article, please let me know so I can get it corrected!

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